Process Int - Training

Low Temperature Gas Processing

Key Benefits

  • Review the basics of refrigeration systems
  • Understanding the design options used for low-temperature refrigeration systems
  • Insights into the trade-offs involved in the selection of refrigerant composition
  • Modelling and design of utility systems for low-temperature systems
  • Understanding basic heat integration and the integration of refrigeration systems
  • How to use of shaft power targeting in the synthesis of processing systems
  • Understanding driver selection
  • Insights into the application of utility system design to selected industrial low-temperature processes


Gas liquefaction and low-temperature gas separation are key features of a number of processes in the chemical process and utility industries. There are many processes, such as natural gas liquefaction and processing, industrial gas separation, and ethylene production that operate partially or totally below ambient temperature. Low temperature (sub-ambient) processes require heat rejection to refrigeration systems.

This course introduces to the technologies used in the design of the utility systems required for these processes, and provides insights and systematic approaches necessary for low-cost design solutions.

For large scale systems, multiple levels of refrigeration, cascaded systems, and mixed refrigerants are used. The large variation in potential structures, coupled with the integration of heat exchangers, and the implications of heat rejection from refrigeration, results in an extremely complex design task.

The operating costs for refrigeration systems are usually dominated by the cost of power to drive the compressors. Gas turbines, electric motors, and steam turbines can be employed to provide the mechanical power requirement.

Synthesis of such power systems is again complex, and requires integration with the refrigeration system in order to provide a cost effective solution.

The course concludes by examining the design complexities of utility design in natural gas liquefaction, ethylene, and gas separation.

Who Should Be Trained?

The course is intended for people with a chemical engineering background working in the petrochemical or chemical process industries where gas processing is carried out, or in engineering and consultancy companies servicing those industries. Process engineers with an interest in sub-ambient separation operations more efficient should attend this course.

Dates & Course Fees

We have some offers for group bookings. Also, if you would like this course to be delivered in-house at your business, please contact us to discuss this option.


Session 1 Introduction

Low temperature processes, nature of the design problem

Session 2 Refrigeration Basics

Refrigeration cycles using pure refrigerants

Session 3 Choice of Refrigerant Fluid

Issues involved in the selection of a pure refrigerant

Session 4 Complex Cycles Using Pure Refrigerants

Multiple stages, economisers, cascaded systems

Session 5 Mixed Refrigerants

Degrees of freedom for the design of mixed refrigerants, optimizing mixed refrigerant composition

Session 6 Heat Integration of Refrigeration Systems

Composite curves, problem table, grand composite curve, matching refrigerant profiles against grand composite curves

Session 7 Heat Pumping in Low Temperature Systems

Principles of heat pumping, heat pumping in distillation, different heat pumping arrangements

Session 8 Compressors and Expanders

Review of compressor and expander designs

Session 9 Shaft Power Targeting

Calculation of refrigeration power requirements, screening refrigeration integration options for power reduction

Session 10 Process Expanders in Refrigeration

Use of process expanders

Session 11 Heat Exchangers for Low Temperature Systems

Review of heat exchanger designs for low temperature systems

Session 12 Driver Selection

Selection of drivers, criteria for selection, optimisation of driver selection

Session 13 LNG Processes

Review of major options and design issues in LNG flowsheets

Session 14 Ethylene Processes

Review of major options and design issues in ethylene flowsheets

Session 15 Air Separation Processes

Review of major options and design issues in cryogenic air separation flowsheets

Session 16 Conclusions

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